Software installation method for Linux system.

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1,The source code package installation
Gzip -d apache_1.3.20.tar.gz (extract)
Tar xvf apache_1.3.20.tar (Jie Bao)
cd apache_1.3.20 
./configure (config)       ----./configure --help (see the configure option)
Make (compilation)
Make install (installation)
Make clean (unloading)

Note: the typical source code package can be installed, but not all of it, such as webmin
To perform the./setup.sh directory into the interactive configuration installation
Use the uninstall uninstaller
If you don't see the package to install the README file

2, the RPM package is installed
An example of RPM software package:
foo-1.0-1.i386.rpm 
Including the package name (foo), version number (1), issue No. (1), and the hardware platform (i386).  
(1) install  
# rpm -ivh foo-1.0-1.i386.rpm
foo
####################### 
A. software has been installed
   # rpm -ivh foo-1.0-1.i386.rpm
foo    package foo-1.0-1 is already installed
error: foo-1.0-1.i386.rpm cannot be installed
If you still want to install this package, you can use the --replacepkgs option on the command line, it will ignore the error information.
B. file conflict
If you want to install the software package has a file has been installed in the installing additional software packages, the following error message:
# rpm -ivh foo-1.0-1.i386.rpm
foo /usr/bin/foo conflicts with file from bar-1.0-1
error: foo-1.0-1.i386.rpm cannot be installed
In order for RPM to ignore the error information, use the --replacefiles command line options
C. did not resolve the dependencies of  
RPM packages may depend on other software package, the installation of the specific software package to install the software package.
# rpm -ivh bar-1.0-1.i386.rpm 
    failed dependencies:
         foo is needed by bar-1.0-1
You must install the software package, to solve this problem. If you want to force the installation (however, so after the installation of the software package can not run normally), use the -nodeps command line option.  

(2) to uninstall  
# rpm -e foo
Note: the name of the foo software package is used here, not the package file name “ foo-1.0-1.i386.rpm”. 
If other packages depend on you want to uninstall the software, uninstall will cause error messages. Such as:
    # rpm -e foo
   removing these packages would break dependencies:
         foo is needed by bar-1.0-1
Want RPM to ignore the error information to uninstall it (but, depending on the software package of the program may not be running), use the -nodeps command line options.
(3) upgrade
# rpm -Uvh foo-2.0-1.i386.rpm
    foo
    ###############################
When using the old version of the software package to upgrade to the new version of the software, will have the following error message:
    # rpm -Uvh foo-1.0-1.i386.rpm
    foo package foo-2.0-1 (which is newer) is   already installed
    error: foo-1.0-1.i386.rpm cannot be installed
To enable RPM to “ upgrade ”, can use the --oldpackage command line parameters.
(4) query
# rpm -q foo
   foo-2.0-1
The software package specified option:  
      -a query all installed software package. 
      -f; <file> query contains the files <file>   software package;
    -p   <packagefile>; 
      query software package file name for the <packagefile>   software package;
Information selection option:  
      -i display software package information, such as description, publication number, size, build date, date of installation, platform, as well as other kinds of information.  
      -l display files in the package list.  
      -s displays all the files in the package state.
      -d showed marked document file list (man manual, Info manual, README's, etc). 
      -c showed marked configuration file list. These are to be customized in the installation after the end of the file (sendmail.cf, passwd, inittab, etc).
For those who want to display the file list file, can increase the -v command-line options to get the output as LS -l format.  
(5) verification
To verify that the software package is carried out through comparison of installation files and software package of the original file information in the software package. Among other things, verification is a comparison of file size, MD5 parity check codes, file permissions, type, owner and user groups.  
The rpm -V command is used to validate a software package, such as
    rpm -V foo  
Verification includes file specific software package:  
      rpm -Vf /bin/vi
Verify all installed packages:  
      rpm -Va
According to a RPM to validate a software package:  
      rpm -Vp foo-1.0-1.i386.rpm
If you're worried about RPM database has been damaged, it can be used in this way. If all checks were normal will not produce any output. If there are inconsistencies, will be displayed.  
      output format is 8 bits long string, C used to refer to the configuration file, then the file name. 8 characters each used to express comparison results of a properties file and database in RPM. “.” (point) said test.  
The following characters represent a test failure:
5     MD5   code;
S     file size  
L     symbolic link  
T     file modified date  
D      
U      
G       user group;
M       e model (including rights and file type)  
    if the information output, should be considered carefully, is removed, re install, or fix problems.  
(6) a few examples of the application of RPM
A. if you accidentally deleted some files, but not sure exactly what file delete. If you want to check the whole system have a look have lost what files, you can type:  
      rpm –Va
B. if the file is lost or damaged, you can re install or uninstall and then install the package. If one did not know the file, to investigate and deal with it which belong to the software package, you can enter the following command:  
      rpm -qf /usr/X11R6/bin/xjewel
And the output result will be:
      xjewel-1.6-1
C. if there is more than two examples, such as the /usr/bin/paste problem. You want to check with the document package, but do not know the name of the package, then you can simply type:  
      rpm -Vf /usr/bin/paste
This software package will be verified.
D. if you want to know the detailed information of a program you are using, you can type the following command to get with the program package of document information:  
      rpm -qdf /usr/bin/ispell
Results:  
      /usr/man/man4/ispell.4
      /usr/man/man4/english.4
         …………………………………………………………

E. if you found a new Koules RPM, but do not know what it is, you can type the following command:  
      rpm -qip koules-1.2-2.i386.rpm
F. now you want to know Koules RPM installed files. You can type:  
      rpm -qlp koules-1.2-2.i386.rpm
The graphical management tool: kpackage

3, shell or Java script installation
A graphical interface based on general SHELL installation, or based on the Java language, mainly used in office software and drawing software and installation procedures, such as StarOffice, Oracle installation, easy, and windows.

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Posted by Archer at November 10, 2013 - 2:46 AM